From Buddha World


Gampopa (1079-1153) "the man from Gampo" — who was equally well known in Tibet as Sonam Rinchen, Dagpo Lhaje ("the Physician from Dagpo"), Nyamed Dakpo Rinpoche ("Incomparible Precious One from Dagpo"), and Da'od Zhonnu, (the Tibetan for Candraprabhakumara) — established the Kagyu school, one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism today, as an institution.

Short Biography

Gampopa, a physician from Dagpo region in Kham, was the foremost student of the Tibetan Buddhist teacher Milarepa. Gampopa was renowned for the clarity of his perception and his knowledge of both Kadampa and, later, Mahamudra methods.

Gampopa's position in the transmission lineage of the esoteric Mahamudra teaching is as follows:

  1. Tilopa (988-1069), the Indian yogi who experienced the original transmission of the Mahamudra
  2. Naropa (1016-1100), who perfected the methods of accelerated enlightenment, described in his six yogas of Naropa.
  3. Marpa (1012-1097), the first Tibetan in the lineage, who translated the Vajrayana and Mahamudra texts into Old Tibetan
  4. Milarepa (1052-1135), poet and master who overcame Marpa's reluctance to teach but nonetheless attained enlightenment in a single lifetime
  5. Gampopa, Milarepa's most important student, who integrated Atisha's Kadampa teaching and Tilopa's Mahamudra teaching to establish the Kagyu school

This lineage sequence, taken together, is called the "Five Founding Masters" by the Kagyu followers. Prior to studying under Milarepa, Gampopa had studied the kadampa traditions, which is a gradual path based on the lamrim teachings. He searched for, and eventually met Milarepa, and attained realization of ultimate reality under his guidance. Gampopa wrote The Jewel Ornament of Liberation and founded the Dagpo Kagyud school in 1125. It was the integrative teaching of Gampopa which unified Kadampa and Mahamudra teachings into the distinctive Kagyu approach. Gampopa also established various monastic institutions, taught extensively, and attracted many students. Four of his disciples founded the four "major" Kagyu schools:

  • Barom Kagyu founded by Barompa Darma Wangchug
  • Phagdru Kagyu founded by Phagmo Drupa Dorje Gyalpo
  • Karma Kagyu, also known as the Kamtsang Kagyu School, founded by Düsum Khyenpa the 1st Karmapa
  • Tsalpa Kagyu founded by Zhang Yudragpa Tsondru Drag

The succession of Gampopa's own monastery passed to his nephew Dagpo Gomtsul Tsultim Nyingpo (dwags sgom tshul khrims snying po)

Буддийская Живопись и каллиграфия
Буддийская Живопись и каллиграфия